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Download e-book for kindle: Advanced Concrete Technology 1: Constituent Materials by John Newman, B S Choo

By John Newman, B S Choo

ISBN-10: 0080489982

ISBN-13: 9780080489988

ISBN-10: 0750651032

ISBN-13: 9780750651035

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Wet techniques also require highly skilled staff, if reliable results are to be obtained. Fortunately, a rapid method of analysis known as X-ray fluorescence became available in the late 1960s and this technique is almost universally applied at cement works around the world. 14. 14 Outline of X-ray fluorescence chemical analysis. The sample of raw meal, clinker or cement is inserted in the analyser, either in the form of a pressed disc of finely ground material or after fusing into a glass bead.

11 summarizes the mechanical and physical requirements for the strength classes permitted by EN 197-1. 7. Setting times are determined by the almost universally applied Vicat needle procedure and soundness by the method first developed by Le Chatelier in the nineteenth century. These methods are described in EN 196-3. 11 Strength setting time and soundness requirements in EN 197-1 Compressive strength MPa (EN 196-1 method) Strength class Early strength Standard strength Initial setting time (mm) 2 days 7 days 32,5 N 32,5 R – ≥10,0 ≥16,0 – ≥32,5 ≤52,5 ≥75 42,5 N 42,5 R ≥10,0 ≥20,0 – – ≥42,5 ≤62,5 ≥60 52,5 N 52,5 R ≥20,0 ≥30,0 – – ≥52,5 Soundness (expansion) (mm) 28 days ≤10 ≥45 Currently, in the UK (2002) all bulk cement supplied is class 42,5 or 52,5 and the vast majority is pure Portland type (CEM I using BS EN 197-1 terminology).

8 At most plants the achievement of this ideal chemistry will require the use of corrective materials such as sand and iron oxide. 5 Calculation of clinker compound composition The levels of the four clinker minerals can be estimated using a method of calculation first proposed by Bogue in 1929 (see Bogue, 1955). e. after deducting that combined in C4AF) is combined as C3A The CaO combined in the calculated levels of C3A and C4AF and any free lime are deducted from the total CaO and the level of SiO2 determines the proportions of C3S and C2S.

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Advanced Concrete Technology 1: Constituent Materials (Advanced Concrete Technology Set) by John Newman, B S Choo

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