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Download e-book for kindle: Analog Circuit Design: RF Circuits: Wide band, Front-Ends, by Michiel Steyaert, Arthur H.M. van Roermund, Johan Huijsing

By Michiel Steyaert, Arthur H.M. van Roermund, Johan Huijsing

ISBN-10: 9048169909

ISBN-13: 9789048169900

Analog Circuit layout is a vital reference resource for analog circuit designers and researchers wishing to maintain abreast with the most recent improvement within the box. the academic insurance additionally makes it appropriate to be used in a complicated layout direction.

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Read or Download Analog Circuit Design: RF Circuits: Wide band, Front-Ends, DAC's, Design Methodology and Verification for RF and Mixed-Signal Systems, Low Power and Low Voltage PDF

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Extra resources for Analog Circuit Design: RF Circuits: Wide band, Front-Ends, DAC's, Design Methodology and Verification for RF and Mixed-Signal Systems, Low Power and Low Voltage

Sample text

The current in equation (7) still has to be multiplied by a modified signum function: ìï1, cos ( 2π ft ) > 0 (8) sgn ( cos ( 2π ft ) ) = í ïî0, cos ( 2π ft ) < 0 The correct equation for the non-linear output current is thus: I nl ,2 = −C total 2π f sin ( 4π ft ) 2 sgn ( cos ( 2π ft ) ) 1 Asw V p (9) We are mainly interested in the frequency domain. Equation (9) has a secondorder term with amplitude I nl _ sec ond − order ,2 = −C total 2π f 1 4 Asw V p (10) and a third-order component with amplitude: I nl _ third − order ,2 = −C total 2π f 1 8 Asw V p (11) The total second-order distortion is given by summing the results given in equations (7) and (10).

Under those conditions equation (15) can be rewritten using equations (16) and (17): A = 1+ 2VE L (18) VGS − VT Equation (18) states that the gain of the switches can be increased by reducing the overdrive voltage VGS-VT. It is maximized if the transistor is operated in weak inversion, where equation (16) no longer holds. The drawback is that the parasitic capacitance increases if the overdrive voltage VGS-VT is decreased: larger widths are needed if the device must switch the same current. For the strong inversion region the width is proportional to: I DS : W L (V −V T ) (19) 2 GS Combining equation (18) and (19) we see that the ratio of gain over capacitance is optimized by using large overdrive voltages VGS-VT.

In this way, good accuracy and correlation with the signal currents is assured as well as a very small additional area consumption. However, sample by sample calibration is expensive. Especially for products intended for mass production, the elimination of a calibration cost has an important impact on the cost of the component. Each building block has been designed in order to avoid this calibration. In the mixer, the main contributor to DC offset and therefore to carrier feed-through is the current amplifier.

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Analog Circuit Design: RF Circuits: Wide band, Front-Ends, DAC's, Design Methodology and Verification for RF and Mixed-Signal Systems, Low Power and Low Voltage by Michiel Steyaert, Arthur H.M. van Roermund, Johan Huijsing


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