By Michiel Steyaert, Arthur H.M. van Roermund, Johan Huijsing
Analog Circuit layout is a vital reference resource for analog circuit designers and researchers wishing to maintain abreast with the most recent improvement within the box. the academic insurance additionally makes it appropriate to be used in a complicated layout direction.
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They are saying that necessity is the mum of invention. no less than with regards to this booklet, that adage is correct. As an business electronics teacher, i used to be compelled to exploit a sub-standard textbook in the course of my first yr of training. My scholars have been day-by-day annoyed with the numerous typographical mistakes and imprecise factors during this ebook, having spent a lot time at domestic suffering to appreciate the fabric inside of.
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Extra resources for Analog Circuit Design: RF Circuits: Wide band, Front-Ends, DAC's, Design Methodology and Verification for RF and Mixed-Signal Systems, Low Power and Low Voltage
The current in equation (7) still has to be multiplied by a modified signum function: ìï1, cos ( 2π ft ) > 0 (8) sgn ( cos ( 2π ft ) ) = í ïî0, cos ( 2π ft ) < 0 The correct equation for the non-linear output current is thus: I nl ,2 = −C total 2π f sin ( 4π ft ) 2 sgn ( cos ( 2π ft ) ) 1 Asw V p (9) We are mainly interested in the frequency domain. Equation (9) has a secondorder term with amplitude I nl _ sec ond − order ,2 = −C total 2π f 1 4 Asw V p (10) and a third-order component with amplitude: I nl _ third − order ,2 = −C total 2π f 1 8 Asw V p (11) The total second-order distortion is given by summing the results given in equations (7) and (10).
Under those conditions equation (15) can be rewritten using equations (16) and (17): A = 1+ 2VE L (18) VGS − VT Equation (18) states that the gain of the switches can be increased by reducing the overdrive voltage VGS-VT. It is maximized if the transistor is operated in weak inversion, where equation (16) no longer holds. The drawback is that the parasitic capacitance increases if the overdrive voltage VGS-VT is decreased: larger widths are needed if the device must switch the same current. For the strong inversion region the width is proportional to: I DS : W L (V −V T ) (19) 2 GS Combining equation (18) and (19) we see that the ratio of gain over capacitance is optimized by using large overdrive voltages VGS-VT.
In this way, good accuracy and correlation with the signal currents is assured as well as a very small additional area consumption. However, sample by sample calibration is expensive. Especially for products intended for mass production, the elimination of a calibration cost has an important impact on the cost of the component. Each building block has been designed in order to avoid this calibration. In the mixer, the main contributor to DC offset and therefore to carrier feed-through is the current amplifier.
Analog Circuit Design: RF Circuits: Wide band, Front-Ends, DAC's, Design Methodology and Verification for RF and Mixed-Signal Systems, Low Power and Low Voltage by Michiel Steyaert, Arthur H.M. van Roermund, Johan Huijsing