By Stuart Cole
* totally up-to-date 3rd version of a longtime delivery textbook
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Additional resources for Applied Transport Economics: Policy, Management & Decision Making
12% of work journeys to central London are by car, compared with 38% for inner London, 66% for outer London and 70% for Great Britain as a whole. 56% of employees living in inner London used public transport compared with 36% living in outer London. 4 Weekday and weekend bus trips by hour 2002/03 Source: Transport for London, London Travel Report 2003 Bus operations in a large provincial town (Bradford 1976) This analysis is based on the use of vehicles and the prospects for cost/ revenue ratios of operating under different criteria.
New vehicles with low floors guaranteed on these routes and advertised as such – service elasticity. Reliability – quality of service/regular clock-face timetable/staff training as elements of service elasticity. Concessionary fares (eg free travel for over 60s, students, disabled) may increase demand on a one-off basis following their introduction. This suggests an own price elasticity or cross-price elasticity effect from the motor car. However, this revenue increase has also provided a business case for higher frequency and newer vehicles.
Excluding the glossy photographs, 66 per cent of the leisure brochure and only 5 per cent of the business brochure relates to price, thus indicating the relative magnitude of price elasticities in the two segments. Rail operators’ estimates of the effects of coach operations on their market share show an overall decline in the western corridor which is particularly marked on the Oxford route. The increase in the coach share of the market was due partly to price elasticity and partly to cross-price elasticity effects.
Applied Transport Economics: Policy, Management & Decision Making by Stuart Cole