By Rée, Paul; Small, Robin; Rée, Paul; Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm
This booklet comprises the 1st English translations of "The foundation of the ethical Sensations" and "Psychological Observations", the 2 most vital works via the German thinker Paul Re. those essays current Re's ethical philosophy, which prompted the information of his shut buddy Friedrich Nietzsche significantly. Nietzsche students have frequently incorrectly attributed to him arguments and concepts which are Re's and feature did not observe responses to Re's works in Nietzsche's writings. Re's pondering mixed strands: a pessimistic notion of human nature, provided within the French moralists' aphoristic kind that may develop into a mainstay of Nietzsche's personal writings, and a concept of morality derived from Darwin's concept of average choice. Re's ethical Darwinism was once a relevant issue prompting Nietzsche to put in writing "On the family tree of Morals" and the foundation for a lot of modern-day "evolutionary ethics". In an illuminating serious advent, Robin Small examines Re's lifestyles and paintings, finding his software of evolutionary innovations to morality inside of a broader historical past of Darwinism whereas exploring Re's theoretical and private dating with Nietzsche. In putting Nietzsche in his highbrow and social context, Small profoundly demanding situations the parable of Nietzsche as a solitary philosopher
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65 Yet different themes also appear alongside these echoes. One is important for Nietzsche’s own later thinking: the difference in moral thinking between the strong and weak members of societies. For the ruling tribes and castes, the power to repay beneﬁt with beneﬁt, and harm with harm, is what is called good. Hence, the enemy is not called evil, as one can see in Homer, for whom the Trojan and Greek are both good. On the other hand, the powerless are fearful of others, and so think of everyone else—even the gods—as evil.
While it is carried out only after some breach, that behavior is only the “occasion” of the disciplinary action, Feuerbach says, and not its real reason. In contrast, punishment is not concerned with any improvement of offenders: hence, it is appropriate even where no improvement is possible. Many people have confused punishment and discipline, he notes, and even attempted an impossible combination of the concepts. Feuerbach locates the source of the mistake in the practice of upbringing. 118 As an aspect of education, its aim is to make children not just law-abiding, but ethical: that is, in the end they must freely choose to do what is right.
They had met Rée when he and Nietzsche were at the 1876 Bayreuth festival, as well as during the following Sorrento period, and taken an instant dislike to him. This may have been simply due to their fervent anti-Semitism, but there were other reasons, such as Rée’s open sympathy with French culture, a perennial object of Wagner’s hostility after his earlier experiences in Paris. Even Rée’s admiration for Schopenhauer was unacceptable from the Wagnerian point of view, since it explicitly set aside his doctrine of spiritual redemption in favor of a mere worldly wisdom.
Basic writings by Rée, Paul; Small, Robin; Rée, Paul; Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm