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Robert Marcus, David Feldman, Jennifer Kelsey's Osteoporosis, 2nd Edition (2-Volume Set) PDF

By Robert Marcus, David Feldman, Jennifer Kelsey

ISBN-10: 0124708625

ISBN-13: 9780124708624

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Extra info for Osteoporosis, 2nd Edition (2-Volume Set)

Sample text

The determined osteoprogenitor is recognizable in bone as a preosteoblast. , they are usually present where active mature osteoblasts are laying down a bone matrix. These cells appear elongated, fibroblastic, or spindle shaped with an oval or elongated nucleus and with notable glycogen content. However, some of the cells in the layer found directly behind the active osteoblasts may appear morphologically closer to the cuboidal osteoblast and can clearly be defined as preosteoblasts (Fig. 4). , alkaline phosphatase activity, but less than mature osteoblasts [147,229].

For clinical applications of genetically engineered cells for the local reconstruction of bone tissue [155 – 159] or to treat systemic bone diseases [153,160 – 163], in vitro expansion and modification of the cells forming adherent marrow colonies are important considerations. However, mechanisms related to the retention of in vivo properties, homing, engraftment, and differentiation after transplantation must be addressed [159,164 – 166]. Many groups have shown the adherent marrow population differentiates in vivo and in vitro to several mesenchymal lineage cells: adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and myoblasts [reviewed in 167,116,168 – 174].

Being derived from osteoblasts, a young osteocyte has many of the ultrastructural characteristics of a cell involved in protein synthesis (rough endoplasmic reticulum, large Golgi), except that there is a decrease in the volume of the cell. An older osteocyte, located deeper within the calcified bone, shows less of these features; and in addition, glycogen stores become evident in its cytoplasm. Osteocytes have been shown to synthesize new bone matrix at the surface of the lacunae, and there is some evidence for their ability to resorb calcified bone from the same surface [331].

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Osteoporosis, 2nd Edition (2-Volume Set) by Robert Marcus, David Feldman, Jennifer Kelsey

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